Nepal has experienced several changes in its economic conditions and livelihood strategies following the decade-long experiences of conflict of various types. This review paper seeks to answer basic questions on livelihoods and services and social protection in Nepal by synthesising the available literature on the topic in order to establish the current level of understanding about these terms and identify the gaps in the knowledge. Various government and non-governmental organisations have taken proactive steps through various policies and programmes to enhance the livelihood and basic service security and social protection in post-conflict Nepal. This has helped improve the livelihoods, living standard, and the status of Nepal in different socio-economic fronts. Despite significant progress made over the last decade, there are still many challenges, such as poverty, inequality, and social exclusion prevalent in the country, with a visible divide between the rural and urban areas. Therefore, there is a need for some well-designed and targeted interventions to ensure improvements in livelihoods, basic services, and social protection for everyone in the country.
Upreti, B.R., S. KC, R. Mallett, and B. Babajanian, with K. Pyakuryal, S. Ghimire, A. Ghimire, and S.R. Sharma. 2012. London: Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium, Overseas Development Institute.