Paper Walls are Easier to Tear Down: Passport Costs and Legal Barriers to Emigration

Increased attention to the development potential of international migration has led to calls for greater global cooperation and for industrial countries to consider temporary worker programs and other options for increasing the number of immigrants admitted. But less attention has been devoted to policies that migrant-sending countries pursue that impact on the ability of people to emigrate under the existing system. This paper documents the existence and impact of two such policies: passport costs and legal restrictions on emigration.

McKenzie, D. 2007. World Development. 35:11, 2026-2039. 

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